The required power of literary analysis was then unknown, and, if it were possible, we know of no writer of that age who had the wonderful skill necessary to produce such an imitation. For external evidence in favour of Acts, see ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. Jerome, Eusebius, and Origen, ascribing the books to St. His bishop, Pothinus, whom be succeeded, was ninety years of age when he gained the crown of martyrdom in 177, and must have been born while some of the Apostles and very many of their hearers were still living. When we compare his quotations with those of Clement of Alexandria, variant readings of text present themselves.
It is to postulate a literary miracle, says Plummer, to suppose that one of the books was a forgery written in Imitation of the other. Luke, are important not only as testifying to the belief of their own, but also of earlier times. Jerome and Origen were great travellers, and all three were omnivorous readers. Mark, and he uses the four Gospels just as any modern Catholic writer. There was already established an Alexandrian type of text different from that used in the West.
The Gospel and Acts are both dedicated to Theophilus and the author of the latter work claims to be the author of the former (Acts 1:1). Every ancient testimony for the authenticity of Acts tells equally in favour of the Gospel; and every passage for the Lucan authorship of the Gospel gives a like support to the authenticity of Acts. John the Apostle, and in his numerous writings he frequently mentions other disciples of the Apostles. 130 (some say much earlier), is, therefore, a witness for the early tradition of Asia Minor, Rome, and Gaul.
The style and arrangement of both are so much alike that the supposition that one was written by a forger in imitation of the other is absolutely excluded. Besides, in many places of the early Fathers both books are ascribed to St. The external evidence can be touched upon here only in the briefest manner. He was priest in Lyons during the persecution in 177, and was the bearer of the letter of the confessors to Rome. He quotes the Gospels just as any modern bishop would do, he calls them Scripture, believes even in their verbal inspiration; shows how congruous it is that there are four and only four Gospels; and says that Luke, who begins with the priesthood and sacrifice of Zachary, is the calf.
We should naturally expect that the long intercourse between St. Luke would mutually influence their vocabulary, and their writings show that this was really the case. Westcott shows that there is no trace in Justin of the use of any written document on the life of Christ except our Gospels. that His parents went thither [to Bethlehem] in consequence of an enrolment under Cyrinius that as they could not find a lodging in the village they lodged in a cave close by it, where Christ was born, and laid by Mary in a manger", etc. There is a constant intermixture in Justin's quotations of the narratives of St. He states, however, that the memoirs which were called Gospels were read in the churches on Sunday along with the writings of the Prophets, in other words, they were placed on an equal rank with the Old Testament.
"He [Justin] tells us that Christ was descended from Abraham through Jacob, Judah, Phares, Jesse, David that the Angel Gabriel was sent to announce His birth to the Virgin Mary that it was in fulfillment of the prophecy of Isaiah . In the "Dialogue", cv, we have a passage peculiar to St. "Jesus as He gave up His Spirit upon the Cross said, Father, into thy hands I commend my Spirit?
The words and phrases cited are either peculiar to the Third Gospel and Acts, or are more frequent than in other New Testament writings. When all these considerations are fully taken into account, they prove that the companion of St. Writing to the Colossians (iv, 11), he says: "Luke, the most dear physician, saluteth you." He was, therefore, with St. Several writers have given examples of parallelism between the Gospel and the Pauline Epistles.
' [Luke ], even as I learned from the Memoirs of this fact also." These Gospels which were read every Sunday must be the same as our four, which soon after, in the time of Irenæus, were in such long established honour, and regarded by him as inspired by the Holy Ghost. About the same time the Gospels, together with their titles, were translated into Latin; and here, again, we meet the phenomena of variant readings, to be found in Clement, Irenæus, Old Syriac, Justin, and Celsus, pointing to a long period of previous copying.
We never hear, says Salmon, of any revolution dethroning one set of Gospels and replacing them by another; so we may be sure that the Gospels honoured by the Church in Justin's day were the same as those to which the same respect was paid in the days of Irenæus, not many years after. Finally, we may ask, if the author of the two books were not St. Harnack (Luke the Physician, 2) holds that as the Gospel begins with a prologue addressed to an individual (Theophilus) it must, of necessity, have contained in its title the name of its author. Luke were not the author, that the name of the real, and truly great, writer came to be completely buried in oblivion, to make room for the name of such a comparatively obscure disciple as St. Apart from his connection, as supposed author, with the Third Gospel and Acts, was no more prominent than Aristarchus and Epaphras; and he is mentioned only in three places in the whole of the New Testament.
Thence they went on to Rome, where, during the two years that St. Luke was frequently at his side, though not continuously, as he is not mentioned in the greetings of the Epistle to the Philippians (Lightfoot, "Phil.", 35). Mark, Aristarchus, Demas, and Luke my fellow labourers" (Philem., 24). Jerome holds that it was during these two years Acts was written. These were brought together by the Bollandists ("Acta SS.", 18 Oct.).
He was present when the Epistles to the Colossians, Ephesians and Philemon were written, and is mentioned in the salutations given in two of them: "Luke the most dear physician, saluteth you" (Colossians ); "There salute thee . In the "Gentleman's Magazine" for June, 1841, a paper appeared on the medical language of St. To the instances given in that article, Plummer and Harnack add several others; but the great book on the subject is Hobart "The Medical Language of St. Hobart works right through the Gospel and Acts and points out numerous words and phrases identical with those employed by such medical writers as Hippocrates, Arctæus, Galen, and Dioscorides. Ramsay, and Sir John Hawkins." There is a striking resemblance between the prologue of the Gospel and a preface written by Dioscorides, a medical writer who studied at Tarsus in the first century (see Blass, "Philology of the Gospels").