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For example, an attacker might be able to inject ransomware or other malware into websites.The weaknesses are in the Wi-Fi standard itself, and not in individual products or implementations.This is because Android and Linux can be tricked into (re)installing an all-zero encryption key (see below for more info).When attacking other devices, it is harder to decrypt all packets, although a large number of packets can nevertheless be decrypted.This implies all these networks are affected by (some variant of) our attack.For instance, the attack works against personal and enterprise Wi-Fi networks, against the older WPA and the latest WPA2 standard, and even against networks that only use AES.It will install this key after receiving message 3 of the 4-way handshake.

During our initial research, we discovered ourselves that Android, Linux, Apple, Windows, Open BSD, Media Tek, Linksys, and others, are all affected by some variant of the attacks.However, because messages may be lost or dropped, the Access Point (AP) will retransmit message 3 if it did not receive an appropriate response as acknowledgment.As a result, the client may receive message 3 multiple times.In any case, the following demonstration highlights the type of information that an attacker can obtain when performing key reinstallation attacks against protected Wi-Fi networks: Our attack is not limited to recovering login credentials (i.e. In general, any data or information that the victim transmits can be decrypted.Additionally, depending on the device being used and the network setup, it is also possible to decrypt data sent towards the victim (e.g. Although websites or apps may use HTTPS as an additional layer of protection, we warn that this extra protection can (still) be bypassed in a worrying number of situations.Therefore, any correct implementation of WPA2 is likely affected.To prevent the attack, users must update affected products as soon as security updates become available.The attack works against all modern protected Wi-Fi networks.Depending on the network configuration, it is also possible to inject and manipulate data.When the victim reinstalls the key, associated parameters such as the incremental transmit packet number (i.e. Unfortunately, we found this is not guaranteed by the WPA2 protocol.By manipulating cryptographic handshakes, we can abuse this weakness in practice.

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